Feb 15 2018

Middlebrook pharmaceuticals, middlebrook pharmaceuticals.#Middlebrook #pharmaceuticals


A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to ampicillin except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration. Amoxicillin is commonly prescribed with clauvanic acid (a beta lactamase inhibitor) as it is susceptible to beta-lacatamase degradation.

Middlebrook pharmaceuticals

Structure for DB01060 (Amoxicillin)

Middlebrook pharmaceuticals

Middlebrook pharmaceuticalsMiddlebrook pharmaceuticalsMiddlebrook pharmaceuticalsMiddlebrook pharmaceuticals

Middlebrook pharmaceuticals

Middlebrook pharmaceuticals

Middlebrook pharmaceuticals

Monoisotopic: 365.104541423 Chemical Formula C16H19N3O5S InChI Key LSQZJLSUYDQPKJ-NJBDSQKTSA-N InChI


For the treatment of infections of the ear, nose, and throat, the genitourinary tract, the skin and skin structure, and the lower respiratory tract due to susceptible (only b-lactamase-negative) strains of Streptococcus spp. (a- and b-hemolytic strains only), S. pneumoniae, Staphylococcus spp., H. influenzae, E. coli, P. mirabilis, or E. faecalis. Also for the treatment of acute, uncomplicated gonorrhea (ano-genital and urethral infections) due to N. gonorrhoeae (males and females).

Amoxicillin is a moderate-spectrum antibiotic active against a wide range of Gram-positive, and a limited range of Gram-negative organisms. It is usually the drug of choice within the class because it is better absorbed, following oral administration, than other beta-lactam antibiotics. Amoxicillin is susceptible to degradation by -lactamase-producing bacteria, and so may be given with clavulanic acid to increase its susceptability. The incidence of -lactamase-producing resistant organisms, including E. coli, appears to be increasing. Amoxicillin is sometimes combined with clavulanic acid, a -lactamase inhibitor, to increase the spectrum of action against Gram-negative organisms, and to overcome bacterial antibiotic resistance mediated through -lactamase production.

Mechanism of action

Amoxicillin binds to penicillin-binding protein 1A (PBP-1A) located inside the bacterial cell well. Penicillins acylate the penicillin-sensitive transpeptidase C-terminal domain by opening the lactam ring. This inactivation of the enzyme prevents the formation of a cross-link of two linear peptidoglycan strands, inhibiting the third and last stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis. Cell lysis is then mediated by bacterial cell wall autolytic enzymes such as autolysins; it is possible that amoxicllin interferes with an autolysin inhibitor.

Rapidly absorbed after oral administration.

Volume of distribution Not Available Protein binding

In blood serum, amoxicillin is approximately 20% protein-bound

Hepatic metabolism accounts for less than 30% of the biotransformation of most penicillins

Route of elimination

Most of the amoxicillin is excreted unchanged in the urine; its excretion can be delayed by concurrent administration of probenecid.

Clearance Not Available Toxicity

Serious toxicity is unlikely following large doses of amoxicillin. Acute ingestion of large doses of amoxicillin may cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain. Acute oliguric renal failure and hematuria may occur following large doses.

Affected organisms

  • Enteric bacteria and other eubacteria
  • Gram negative and gram positive bacteria
  • Streptococcus pyogenes
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • Borrelia burgdorferi
  • Chlamydia pneumoniae
  • Salmonella typhi
  • Chlamydia psittaci

Pathways Not Available Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs Browse all” title=”About SNP Mediated Effects/ADRs” id=”snp-actions-info” class=”drug-info-popup” href=”javascript:void(0);”> Not Available

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